[65] The concept of transnationalism suggests a weakening of the control a nation-state has over its borders, inhabitants, and territory. [48] Tyre and Carthage also colonised the Mediterranean. One of the largest diasporas of modern times is that of sub-Saharan Africans, which dates back several centuries. [citation needed], William Safran in an article published in 1991,[20] set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities. [58] Migrant social structures in Chinese megacities are often based on place of origin, such as a shared hometown or province, and recruiters and foremen commonly select entire work-crews from the same village. The size of the Irish diaspora is demonstrated by the number of people around the world who claim Irish ancestry; some sources put the figure at 80 to 100 million. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. In pursuing a unified future, the African Union (AU) will[when?] Professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can also be considered diaspora. A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/)[1] is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Brubaker notes that (as examples): Albanians, Basques, Hindu Indians, Irish, Japanese, Kashmiri, Koreans, Kurds, Palestinians, and Tamils have been conceptualized as diasporas in this sense. Hine, Trica Danielle. Baser, B and Swain, A. As a result, the people of a forced diaspora typically share feelings of persecution, loss, and desire to return to their homeland. [37] Similarly, the Romani, numbering roughly 12 million in Europe[38] trace their origins to the Indian subcontinent, and their presence in Europe is first attested to in the Middle Ages.[39][40]. The paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora; some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case. By 597 BCE, the Jewish diaspora was scattered among three distinct groups: one in Babylon and other less-settled parts of the Middle East, another in Judaea, and another group in Egypt. that about 200,000 Tibetans live now dispersed worldwide, half of them in India, Nepal and Bhutan. Diasporas often maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies. Here, Brubaker cites "transethnic and transborder linguistic categories...such as Francophone, Anglophone and Lusophone 'communities'", along with Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Confucian, Huguenot, Muslim and Catholic 'diasporas'. The recent application of the word "diaspora" to the Viking lexicon highlights their cultural profile distinct from their predatory reputation in the regions they settled, especially in the North Atlantic. [72], Following the presidency of Hugo Chávez and the establishment of his Bolivarian Revolution, over 1.6 million Venezuelans emigrated from Venezuela in what has been called the Bolivarian diaspora. Some of the Judean Jews chose to flee to Egypt’s Nile Delta. Recently, scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as colonialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands. Unlike diaspora created by force, voluntary immigrant groups, while also maintaining close cultural and spiritual links to their countries of origin, are less likely to wish to return to them permanently. Black Europe and the African Diaspora. diaspora ("to disperse") forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place (originally denoting the dispersal of the Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong) Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration. The twentieth century saw huge population movements. The population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, and usually, its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense. Some writers[who?] In 2019, according to the United Nations with 17.5 million Indian diaspora is world's largest diaspora, followed by 11.8 million Mexican diaspora and 10.7 million of Chinese diaspora. Diaspora is an important concept in history, sociology, religious studies, ethnic studies, political science, and literary criticism, among other disciplines. [28] Brubaker notes that, as of 2005[update], there were also academic books or articles on the Dixie, white, liberal, gay, queer and digital diasporas. It is the same process as immigration, which is the influx … Historian James Axtell estimates that 240,000 people left Europe for the Americas in the 16th century. In Southeast Asia, many Vietnamese people emigrated to France and later millions to the United States, Australia and Canada after the Cold War-related Vietnam War of 1955-1975. A South Korean diaspora movement during the 1990s caused the homeland fertility rate to drop when a large amount of the middle class emigrated, as the rest of the population continued to age. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, keeping ties back home (country of origin) relationships with other communities in the diaspora, and lack of full integration into the host countries. [68], A new Jamaican diaspora formed around the start of the 21st century. Controversy over the fate of migrant workers in the United States is often a hot topic in the news. 1. Meanwhile, journalists, politicians, and cultural authorities use the term with increasing frequency when describing contemporary global migration. 1 capitalized, Judaism. People of a diaspora typically preserve and celebrate the culture and traditions of their homeland. Other Europeans moved to Siberia, Africa, and Australasia. Today, the growing Chinese diaspora has evolved into a more advanced “multi-class and multi-skilled” profile needed to satisfy the demands of the high-tech globalized economy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A diaspora (/ d aɪ ˈ æ s p ə r ə /) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Students cultivate their understanding of human geography through data and geographic analyses as they explore topics like patterns and spatial organization, human impacts and interactions with their environment, and spatial processes and societal changes. Later, 30,000 French colons from Cambodia were displaced after being expelled by the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime under Pol Pot. In contrast, a voluntary diaspora is a community of people who have left their homelands in search of economic opportunity, as in the massive emigration of people from depressed regions of Europe to the United States during the late 1800s. A diaspora is a group of people who have been forced from or chosen to leave their homeland to settle in other lands. In, Jayasuriya, S. and Pankhurst, R. eds.

diaspora definition ap human geography

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